Empirical evidence suggests that judges generally
regard judicial accountability as an infringement on
judicial independence that unduly undermines public
confidence in their integrity beyond considerations of
judicial error; the non-judicial or personal misconduct
of judges; and their relatively rare, largely inadvertent
ethics violations.  In contrast, many non-lawyers and
some lawyers publicly contend that improper bias
prevails among judges against certain minorities and
in favor of big business, the rich, the powerful, the
influential, the politically connected, and American
government.  These supposed whistleblowers press
for judicial oversight beyond considerations of error
and/or garden variety crimes such as bribery.